60 Second Summary: How To Be an Antiracist – Ibram X. Kendi

3 Big Ideas

  1. It is critical to have a common definition of key terms. You cannot engage in productive dialogue about racism unless you have a shared understanding of terms. Definitions within the book:
    1. Racist – One who is supporting a racist policy through their actions or inaction or expressing a racist idea. 
    2. Anti-racist – One who is supporting an antiracist policy through their actions or expressing an antiracist idea. 
    3. Racism – Racism is a marriage of racist policies and racist ideas that produces and normalizes racial inequities. 
    4. Anti-racism – Antiracism is a powerful collection of antiracist policies that lead to racial equity and are substantiated by antiracist ideas. 
  2. Many people say they are not-racist but that is not enough. It is not enough to be neutral. Through neutrality you enable racism You are either racist or anti-racist.
  3. Racist ideas can come from both Assimilationist and Segregationist Ideas:
    1. Assimilationist Ideas – Black people are inferior by nurture. Belief that inferiority has come through nurture.
    2. Segregationist Ideas – black people are inferior by nature. They will never be as good as whites.

2 Quotes:

“White supremacists are the ones supporting policies that benefit racist power against the interests of the majority of White people. White supremacists claim to be pro-White but refuse to acknowledge that climate change is having a disastrous impact on the earth White people inhabit. They oppose affirmative-action programs, despite White women being their primary beneficiaries. White supremacists rage against Obamacare even as 43 percent of the people who gained lifesaving health insurance from 2010 to 2015 were White.”

“Whenever the antiracist sees individuals behaving positively or negatively, the antiracist sees exactly that: individuals behaving positively or negatively, not representatives of whole races. To be antiracist is to deracialize behavior, to remove the tattooed stereotype from every racialized body. Behavior is something humans do, not races.”

1 Action

Don’t be not-racist be anti-racist. Follow the examples set within the book for anti-racist actions and expressions. Example:

  • To be antiracist is to see all cultures in all their differences as on the same level, as equals. When we see cultural difference, we are seeing cultural difference—nothing more, nothing less.

If you have more time… Image result for clock icon


You may also like: 60 Second Summary: Biased – Dr Jennifer Eberhardt

Video Summary of key concepts:

DEFINITIONS

TERMDESCRIPTION
RACISTOne who is supporting a racist policy through their actions or inaction or expressing a racist idea.
ANTIRACISTOne who is supporting an antiracist policy through their actions or expressing an antiracist idea.
RACISIMRacism is a marriage of racist policies and racist ideas that produces and normalizes racial inequities.
ANTI-RACISIMAntiracism is a powerful collection of antiracist policies that lead to racial equity and are substantiated by antiracist ideas.
RACIST INEQUITYRacial inequity is when two or more racial groups are not standing on approximately equal footing. Here’s an example of racial inequity
RACIST POLICIESA racist policy is any measure that produces or sustains racial inequity between racial groups. An antiracist policy is any measure that produces or sustains racial equity between racial groups. By policy, I mean written and unwritten laws, rules, procedures, processes, regulations, and guidelines that govern people. There is no such thing as a nonracist or race-neutral policy. Every policy in every institution in every community in every nation is producing or sustaining either racial inequity or equity between racial groups.
RACIST IDEASA racist idea is any idea that suggests one racial group is inferior or superior to another racial group in any way.
ASSIMILATIONISTOne who is expressing the racist idea that a racial group is culturally or behaviorally inferior and is supporting cultural or behavioral enrichment programs to develop that racial group.
SEGREGATIONISTOne who is expressing the racist idea that a permanently inferior racial group can never be developed and is supporting policy that segregates away that racial group.
RACEA power construct of collected or merged difference that lives socially.
BIOLOGICAL RACISTOne who is expressing the idea that the races are meaningfully different in their biology and that these differences create a hierarchy of value.
BIOLOGICAL ANTIRACISTOne who is expressing the idea that the races are meaningfully the same in their biology and there are no genetic racial differences.
ETHNIC RACISMA powerful collection of racist policies that lead to inequity between racialized ethnic groups and are substantiated by racist ideas about racialized ethnic groups.
ETHNIC ANTIRACISMA powerful collection of antiracist policies that lead to equity between racialized ethnic groups and are substantiated by antiracist ideas about racialized ethnic groups.
BODILY RACISTOne who is perceiving certain racialized bodies as more animal-like and violent than others. 
CULTURAL RACISTOne who is creating a cultural standard and imposing a cultural hierarchy among racial groups.
CULTURAL ANTIRACISTOne who is rejecting cultural standards and equalizing cultural differences among racial groups.
BEHAVIORAL RACISTOne who is making individuals responsible for the perceived behavior of racial groups and making racial groups responsible for the behavior of individuals.
BEHAVIORAL ANTIRACISTOne who is making racial group behavior fictional and individual behavior real.
COLORISMA powerful collection of racist policies that lead to inequities between Light people and Dark people, supported by racist ideas about Light and Dark people. 
ANTI-WHITE RACISTOne who is classifying people of European descent as biologically, culturally, or behaviorally inferior or conflating the entire race of White people with racist power.
POWERLESS DEFENSEThe illusory, concealing, disempowering, and racist idea that Black people can’t be racist because Black people don’t have power.
CLASS RACISTOne who is racializing the classes, supporting policies of racial capitalism against those race-classes, and justifying them by racist ideas about those race-classes. 
SPACE RACISMA powerful collection of racist policies that lead to resource inequity between racialized spaces or the elimination of certain racialized spaces, which are substantiated by racist ideas about racialized spaces.
SPACE ANTIRACISMA powerful collection of antiracist policies that lead to racial equity between integrated and protected racialized spaces, which are substantiated by antiracist ideas about racialized spaces.
GENDER RACISMA powerful collection of racist policies that lead to inequity between race-genders and are substantiated by racist ideas about race-genders.
GENDER ANTIRACISMA powerful collection of antiracist policies that lead to equity between race-genders and are substantiated by anti-racist ideas about race-genders.
QUEER RACISMA powerful collection of racist policies that lead to inequity between race-sexualities and are substantiated by racist ideas about race-sexualities.
QUEER ANTIRACISMA powerful collection of antiracist policies that lead to equity between race-sexualities and are substantiated by antiracist ideas about race-sexualities.
ACTIVISTOne who has a record of power or policy change.

Race:

  • Origins of Race:
    • French poet Jacques de Brézé first used the term “race” in a 1481 hunting poem. In 1606, the same diplomat who brought the addictive tobacco plant to France formally defined race for the first time in a major European dictionary. “Race … means descent,” 6 Jean Nicot wrote in the Trésor de la langue française. “Therefore, it is said that a man, a horse, a dog, or another animal is from a good or bad race.” From the beginning, to make races was to make racial hierarchy.
    • Beginning in 1735, Carl Linnaeus locked in the racial hierarchy of humankind in Systema Naturae.He color-coded the races as White, Yellow, Red, and Black. He attached each race to one of the four regions of the world and described their characteristics. The Linnaeus taxonomy became the blueprint that nearly every enlightened race maker followed and that race makers still follow today.
  • Race is a mirage but one that humanity has organized itself around in very real ways.
  • Avoid color-blindness:
    • The gift of seeing myself as Black instead of being color-blind is that it allows me to clearly see myself historically and politically as being an antiracist, as a member of the interracial body striving to accept and equate and empower racial difference of all kinds.
    • Assimilationists believe in the post-racial myth that talking about race constitutes racism, or that if we stop identifying by race, then racism will miraculously go away. They fail to realize that if we stop using racial categories, then we will not be able to identify racial inequity. If we cannot identify racial inequity, then we will not be able to identify racist policies. If we cannot identify racist policies, then we cannot challenge racist policies. If we cannot challenge racist policies, then racist power’s final solution will be achieved: a world of inequity none of us can see, let alone resist. Terminating racial categories is potentially the last, not the first, step in the antiracist struggle.
  • Race creates new forms of power: the power to categorize and judge, elevate and downgrade, include and exclude. Race makers use that power to process distinct individuals, ethnicities, and nationalities into monolithic races.
  • We have the causality wrong:Systems Maps - General (14)
  • We often see and remember the race and not the individual. This is racist categorizing, this stuffing of our experiences with individuals into color-marked racial closets. An antiracist treats and remembers individuals as individuals. “She acted that way,” we should say, “because she is racist.”
  • “Microaggression,” the constant verbal and nonverbal abuse racist White people unleash on Black people wherever we go, day after day.
    • A White woman grabs her purse when a Black person sits next to her.
    • The seat next to a Black person stays empty on a crowded bus.
    • A White woman calls the cops at the sight of Black people barbecuing in the park.
    • White people telling us that our firmness is anger or that our practiced talents are natural.
    • Mistaking us for the only other Black person around.
    • Calling the cops on our children for selling lemonade on the street.
    • Butchering Ebonics for sport.
    • Assuming we are the help.
    • Assuming the help isn’t brilliant.
    • Asking us questions about the entire Black race.
    • Not giving us the benefit of the doubt.
    • Calling the cops on us for running down the street.
  • I do not use “microaggression” anymore. I detest the post-racial platform that supported its sudden popularity. I detest its component parts—“ micro” and “aggression.” A persistent daily low hum of racist abuse is not minor. I use the term “abuse” because aggression is not as exacting a term. Abuse accurately describes the action and its effects on people: distress, anger, worry, depression, anxiety, pain, fatigue, and suicide.

Ethnicity:

  • We practice ethnic racism when we express a racist idea about an ethnic group or support a racist policy toward an ethnic group. Ethnic racism, like racism itself, points to group behavior, instead of policies, as the cause of disparities between groups. When Ghanaian immigrants to the United States join with White Americans and say African Americans are lazy, they are recycling the racist ideas of White Americans about African Americans. This is ethnic racism.
  • To be antiracist is to view national and transnational ethnic groups as equal in all their differences. To be antiracist is to challenge the racist policies that plague racialized ethnic groups across the world. To be antiracist is to view the inequities between all racialized ethnic groups as a problem of policy.
  • In the fable, a man and lion travel together, arguing over who is superior. They pass a statue that shows a lion strangled by a man. The man says, “See there! How strong we are, and how we prevail over even the king of beasts.” The lion replies, “This statue was made by one of you men. If we lions knew how to erect statues, you would see the man placed under the paw of the lion.” Whoever creates the cultural standard usually puts themself at the top of the hierarchy.
  • To be antiracist is to see all cultures in all their differences as on the same level, as equals. When we see cultural difference, we are seeing cultural difference—nothing more, nothing less.

Behaviour:

  • One of racism’s harms is the way it falls on the unexceptional Black person who is asked to be extraordinary just to survive—and, even worse, the Black screwup who faces the abyss after one error, while the White screwup is handed second chances and empathy.
  • To be an antiracist is to recognize there is no such thing as racial behavior. To be an antiracist is to recognize there is no such thing as Black behavior, let alone irresponsible Black behavior. Black behavior is as fictitious as Black genes. There is no “Black gene.” No one has ever scientifically established a single “Black behavioral trait.”
  • The use of standardized tests to measure aptitude and intelligence is one of the most effective racist policies ever devised to degrade Black minds and legally exclude Black bodies. We degrade Black minds every time we speak of an “academic-achievement gap” based on these numbers. The acceptance of an academic-achievement gap is just the latest method of reinforcing the oldest racist idea: Black intellectual inferiority.
  • Alternatives:
    • What if we measured intelligence by how knowledgeable individuals are about their own environments?
    • What if we measured intellect by an individual’s desire to know?
    • What if we realized the best way to ensure an effective educational system is not by standardizing our curricula and tests but by standardizing the opportunities available to all students?
  • As long as the mind thinks there is something behaviorally wrong with a racial group, the mind can never be antiracist. As long as the mind oppresses the oppressed by thinking their oppressive environment has retarded their behavior, the mind can never be antiracist. As long as the mind is racist, the mind can never be free.
  • Whenever the antiracist sees individuals behaving positively or negatively, the antiracist sees exactly that: individuals behaving positively or negatively, not representatives of whole races. To be antiracist is to deracialize behavior, to remove the tattooed stereotype from every racialized body. Behavior is something humans do, not races.

Colorism:

  • Colorism is a collection of racist policies that cause inequities between Light people and Dark people, and these inequities are substantiated by racist ideas about Light and Dark people.
  • White people usually favor lighter-skinned politicians over darker-skinned ones. Research studies from the book highlights:
    • Dark African Americans are disproportionately at risk of hypertension.
    • Dark African American students receive significantly lower GPAs than Light students.
    • Maybe because racist Americans have higher expectations for Light students, people tend to remember educated Black men as Light-skinned even when their skin is Dark.
    • Even Dark Filipino men have lower incomes than their lighter peers in the United States.
    • Dark immigrants to the United States, no matter their place of origin, tend to have less wealth and income than Light immigrants.
    • When they arrive, Light Latinx people receive higher wages, and Dark Latinx people are more likely to be employed at ethnically homogeneous jobsites.
    • Dark sons and Light daughters receive higher-quality parenting than Light sons and Dark daughters.
    • Dark African Americans receive the harshest prison sentences and more time behind bars.
    • Dark female students are nearly twice as likely to be suspended as White female students, while researchers found no disparity between Light and White female students.
    • Inequities between Light and Dark African Americans can be as wide as inequities between Black and White Americans.
  • To be an antiracist is to diversify our standards of beauty like our standards of culture or intelligence, to see beauty equally in all skin colors, broad and thin noses, kinky and straight hair, light and dark eyes.
  • In the 1980s, Light children were adopted first, had higher incomes, and were less likely to be trapped in public housing and prisons. “The lighter the skin, the lighter the sentence” became a popular antiracist saying as the era of mass incarceration surged in the 1990s.
  • India, “fairness” creams topped $ 200 million in 2014.63 Today, skin lighteners are used by 70 percent of women in Nigeria; 35 percent in South Africa; 59 percent in Togo; and 40 percent in China, Malaysia, the Philippines, and South Korea. 64
  • Surveys show that people consider tanned skin—the replica color of Light people—more attractive than naturally pale skin and Dark skin.

White Racism:

  • To be antiracist is to never mistake the global march of White racism for the global march of White people. To be antiracist is to never mistake the antiracist hate of White racism for the racist hate of White people. To be antiracist is to never conflate racist people with White people, knowing there are antiracist Whites and racist non-Whites. To be antiracist is to see ordinary White people as the frequent victimizers of people of color and the frequent victims of racist power. Donald Trump’s economic policies are geared toward enriching White male power—but at the expense of most of his White male followers, along with the rest of us.
  • Claims of anti-White racism in response to antiracism are as old as civil rights. When Congress passed the (first) Civil Rights Act of 1866, it made Black people citizens of the United States, stipulated their civil rights, and stated that state law could not “deprive a person of any of these rights on the basis of race.” President Andrew Johnson reframed this antiracist bill as a “bill made to operate in favor of the colored against the white race.” Racist Americans a century later framed supporters of affirmative action as “hard-core racists of reverse discrimination,” to quote former U.S. solicitor general Robert Bork in The Wall Street Journal in 1978. When Alicia Garza typed “Black Lives Matter” 23 on Facebook in 2013 and when that love letter crested into a movement in 2015, former New York City mayor Rudy Giuliani called the movement “inherently racist.”
  • White supremacists are the ones supporting policies that benefit racist power against the interests of the majority of White people. White supremacists claim to be pro-White but refuse to acknowledge that climate change is having a disastrous impact on the earth White people inhabit. They oppose affirmative-action programs, despite White women being their primary beneficiaries. White supremacists rage against Obamacare even as 43 percent of the people who gained lifesaving health insurance from 2010 to 2015 were White.
  • White supremacist is code for anti-White, and White supremacy is nothing short of an ongoing program of genocide against the White race. In fact, it’s more than that: White supremacist is code for anti-human, a nuclear ideology that poses an existential threat to human existence.

Facts and Research from Book:

  • During the 2013–14 academic year, Black students were four times more likely than White students to be suspended from public schools, according to Department of Education data.
  • Black people comprise 13 percent of the U.S. population. And yet, in 2015, Black bodies accounted for at least 26 percent of those killed by police, 12 declining slightly to 24 percent in 2016, 22 percent in 2017, and 21 percent in 2018, according to The Washington Post.
  • Unarmed Black bodies—which apparently look armed to fearful officers—are about twice as likely to be killed as unarmed White bodies.
  • In Pennsylvania, a recent statewide study found that at any given poverty level, districts with a higher proportion of White students receive significantly more funding than districts with more students of color.

 

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s